Depression

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Depressed people feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions, and may contemplate, attempt, or commit suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains, or digestive problems may also be present.

Depressed mood is not always a psychiatric disorder. It may also be a normal reaction to certain life events, a symptom of some medical conditions, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. Depressed mood is also a primary or associated feature of certain psychiatric syndromes such as clinical depression.

Lifestyle

Lifestyle factors that may play a role in depressed moods include irregular sleep, poor diet, and lack of exercise.

Life events

Life events and changes that may precipitate depressed mood include childbirth, menopause, financial difficulties, job problems, a medical diagnosis (cancer, HIV, etc.), bullying, loss of a loved one, natural disasters, relationship troubles, separation, and catastrophic injury.

Medical treatments

Certain medications are known to cause depressed mood in a significant number of patients. These include hepatitis C drug therapy and some drugs used to treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers or reserpine.

Non-psychiatric illnesses

Depressed mood can be the result of a number of infectious diseases, neurological conditions and physiological problems including hypoandrogenism (in men), Addison's disease, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, stroke, diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea, and disturbed circadian rhythm. It is often one of the early symptoms of hypothyroidism (reduced activity of the thyroid gland). For a discussion of non-psychiatric conditions that can cause depressed mood, see Depression (differential diagnoses).

Psychiatric syndromes

A number of psychiatric syndromes feature depressed mood as a main symptom. The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive disorder (MDD; commonly called major depression or clinical depression) where a person has at least two weeks of depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities; and dysthymia, a state of chronic depressed mood, the symptoms of which do not meet the severity of a major depressive episode. Another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, features one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, cognition and energy levels, but may also involve one or more depressive episodes. When the course of depressive episodes follows a seasonal pattern, the disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc.) may be described as a seasonal affective disorder.

Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder commonly features depressed mood; adjustment disorder with depressed mood is a mood disturbance appearing as a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor, in which the resulting emotional or behavioral symptoms are significant but do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode and posttraumatic stress disorder, an anxiety disorder that sometimes follows trauma, is commonly accompanied by depressed mood.

common diseases

DEADDICTION

Addiction is a term defined a chronic relapsing disorder for people abusing substances like Smoking, alcohol, rave drugs, medical drugs. It is a tendency to make one feel euphoric ( well being) , there are several drugs which are available in the market which are used for abuse.  Several routes of drug transmission - Drinking, smoking, injecting, pills.  However the nature of the drug and its toxicity will be responsible for the morbidity or lethality of the person. 

SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally seems in late youth or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. It is one of many brain diseases that may include misconceptions, loss of personality, confusion, agitation, social withdrawal, psychosis, and strange behavior.

ANXIETY DISORDER

Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a racing heart and shakiness.

DEPRESSION

Depression is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry. Research tells us that other factors contribute to the beginning of depression, including genetics, changes in hormone levels, certain medical conditions, stress, sorrow or difficult life circumstances. Any of these factors alone or in combination can rapid changes in brain chemistry that lead to depression’s many symptoms.

HEADACHE

Headache, also known as cephalalgia, is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines, tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment. There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.

BRAIN EEG

An electroencephalogram detects abnormalities in the brain waves or electrical activity of the brain. During the procedure, electrodes consisting of small metal discs with thin wires are pasted on the scalp. The electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of the brain cells. The charges are amplified and appear as a graph on a computer screen or as a recording that may be printed out on paper. Your doctor then interprets the reading. Related procedures that may be performed are evoked potential studies. These studies are used to measure electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation of sight, sound, or touch. Please see this procedure for additional information.