Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, or spastic colon) is a symptom-based diagnosis characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits. As a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), IBS has no known organic cause. Diarrhea or constipation may predominate, or they may alternate (classified as IBS-D, IBS-C or IBS-A, respectively). Historically a diagnosis of exclusion, a diagnosis of IBS can now be made on the basis of symptoms alone, in the absence of alarm features such as age of onset greater than 50 years, weight loss, gross hematochezia, systemic signs of infection or colitis, or family history of inflammatory bowel disease. Onset of IBS is more likely to occur after an infection (post-infectious, IBS-PI), or a stressful life event, but varies little with age.

Although there is no cure for IBS, there are treatments that attempt to relieve symptoms, including dietary adjustments, medication and psychological interventions. Patient education and a good doctor-patient relationship are also important.

Several conditions may present themselves as IBS, including coeliac disease, fructose malabsorption, mild infections, parasitic infections like giardiasis, several inflammatory bowel diseases, bile acid malabsorption, functional chronic constipation, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and chronic functional abdominal pain. In IBS, routine clinical tests yield no abnormalities, although the bowels may be more sensitive to certain stimuli, such as balloon insufflation testing. The exact cause of IBS is unknown. The most common theory is that IBS is a disorder of the interaction between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract, although another common theory is that for at least some individuals with IBS there are abnormalities in the gut flora which results in inflammation and altered bowel function.

IBS has no direct effect on life expectancy. It is, however, a source of chronic pain, fatigue, and other symptoms and contributes to work absenteeism. The high prevalence of IBS and significant effects on quality of life make IBS a disease with a high social cost. It has also been suggested that a proportion of IBS patients may develop depression and are thus more likely to commit suicide. Proposed factors for increased suicide rate in IBS patients include perceived hopelessness and poor quality of services.

common diseases

DEADDICTION

Addiction is a term defined a chronic relapsing disorder for people abusing substances like Smoking, alcohol, rave drugs, medical drugs. It is a tendency to make one feel euphoric ( well being) , there are several drugs which are available in the market which are used for abuse.  Several routes of drug transmission - Drinking, smoking, injecting, pills.  However the nature of the drug and its toxicity will be responsible for the morbidity or lethality of the person. 

SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally seems in late youth or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. It is one of many brain diseases that may include misconceptions, loss of personality, confusion, agitation, social withdrawal, psychosis, and strange behavior.

ANXIETY DISORDER

Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a racing heart and shakiness.

DEPRESSION

Depression is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry. Research tells us that other factors contribute to the beginning of depression, including genetics, changes in hormone levels, certain medical conditions, stress, sorrow or difficult life circumstances. Any of these factors alone or in combination can rapid changes in brain chemistry that lead to depression’s many symptoms.

HEADACHE

Headache, also known as cephalalgia, is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines, tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment. There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.

BRAIN EEG

An electroencephalogram detects abnormalities in the brain waves or electrical activity of the brain. During the procedure, electrodes consisting of small metal discs with thin wires are pasted on the scalp. The electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of the brain cells. The charges are amplified and appear as a graph on a computer screen or as a recording that may be printed out on paper. Your doctor then interprets the reading. Related procedures that may be performed are evoked potential studies. These studies are used to measure electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation of sight, sound, or touch. Please see this procedure for additional information.