Manic-Depressive Disorder

Manic depression (also known as bipolar affective disorder, Bipolar disorder or manic-depressive disorder) is a mental illness. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience episodes of an elevated or agitated mood known as mania, alternating with episodes of depression. These episodes can impair the individual's ability to function in ordinary life. About 4% of people have bipolar disorder worldwide, a proportion that is consistent for men and women and across racial and ethnic groups. The cause is not clearly understood, but genetic and environmental risk factors are believed to play a role. Treatment commonly includes therapy and mood stabilizing medication.

There are widespread problems with social stigma, stereotypes, and prejudice against individuals with bipolar disorder.

Signs and symptoms

Mania is the defining feature of bipolar disorder, and can occur with different levels of severity. At milder levels of mania, known as hypomania, individuals appear energetic, excitable, and may be highly productive. As mania becomes more severe, individuals begin to behave erratically and impulsively, often making poor decisions due to unrealistic ideas about the future, and sleep very little. At the most severe level, individuals can experience very distorted beliefs about the world known as psychosis. Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes; some experience a mixed state in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. Manic and depressive episodes last from a few days to several months.

common diseases

DEADDICTION

Addiction is a term defined a chronic relapsing disorder for people abusing substances like Smoking, alcohol, rave drugs, medical drugs. It is a tendency to make one feel euphoric ( well being) , there are several drugs which are available in the market which are used for abuse.  Several routes of drug transmission - Drinking, smoking, injecting, pills.  However the nature of the drug and its toxicity will be responsible for the morbidity or lethality of the person. 

SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally seems in late youth or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. It is one of many brain diseases that may include misconceptions, loss of personality, confusion, agitation, social withdrawal, psychosis, and strange behavior.

ANXIETY DISORDER

Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a racing heart and shakiness.

DEPRESSION

Depression is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry. Research tells us that other factors contribute to the beginning of depression, including genetics, changes in hormone levels, certain medical conditions, stress, sorrow or difficult life circumstances. Any of these factors alone or in combination can rapid changes in brain chemistry that lead to depression’s many symptoms.

HEADACHE

Headache, also known as cephalalgia, is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines, tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment. There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.

BRAIN EEG

An electroencephalogram detects abnormalities in the brain waves or electrical activity of the brain. During the procedure, electrodes consisting of small metal discs with thin wires are pasted on the scalp. The electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of the brain cells. The charges are amplified and appear as a graph on a computer screen or as a recording that may be printed out on paper. Your doctor then interprets the reading. Related procedures that may be performed are evoked potential studies. These studies are used to measure electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation of sight, sound, or touch. Please see this procedure for additional information.